1. Section 3: Assessment
  2. Key Topics for The Assessment Section
    • Part I: Broad Assessment Issues
    • Part II: Style and Process
    • Part III: Pre-Disposition Report
    • Part IV: Psychosexual Evaluation
    • Part V: Risk Assessment
  3. Defining Assessment
    • To estimate or determine the significance or importance of something(s)
    • To observe or monitor
    • To evaluate
  4. Examples of Key Stakeholders
    • Forensic evaluators
    • Specialized treatment providers
    • Supervision officers
    • Teachers, other school officials
    • Release decisionmakers
    • Parents/caregivers
    • Family therapists
    • Victim therapists
    • Juvenile and family court judges
  5. Ongoing Process, Not An Event
    • Risk and needs change
    • Assess critical variables over time
    • Promotes informed, timely responses
  6. What types of assessment data are needed to make informed decisions about juvenile sex offenders?
  7. Examples of Important Assessment Data Points
    • Individual variables
      • Level of risk
      • Sexual history and adjustment
      • Mental health difficulties
      • Substance abuse
      • Maltreatment history
      • Intellectual, cognitive functioning
      • School performance
    • Family variables
      • Parent/caregiver capacity
      • Parental risk factors
      • Violence in the home
    • Environmental variables
      • Peer influences
      • Community influences
      • Access to victims, victim safety issue
  8. Assess Strengths and Assets
    • Individual
    • Family
    • Environmental
  9. Assessment Data Sources
    • Interviews with youth
    • Collateral interviews
    • Comprehensive records
    • General psychological measures
    • Offense–specific measures
    • Physiological tools
  10. Goals Influence Data Needs
    • Inform disposition or sentencing
    • Identify supervision needs
    • Determine supervision level
    • Identify treatment needs
    • Measure treatment progress
    • Assess treatment/supervision compliance
  11. Collaboration is Vital
    • Different system actors, different data
    • Information–sharing is needed
    • Potential statutory/policy restrictions
    • Releases of information
    • Memoranda of understanding
  12. Summary
    • Key to informed decisionmaking
    • Everyone has a role
    • Ongoing process vs. single event
    • Multiple data sources
    • Collaboration, information–sharing
  13. Style and Approach are Important
    • Goal is to obtain complete, accurate information
    • Process and strategy may facilitate or hinder disclosure
    • Focus on rapport
  14. Contextual Variables
    • Stigma, shame, and guilt
    • Intensely personal nature of questions
    • Overwhelming court processes
    • Cultural norms and influences
  15. Invitations to Responsibility
    • Shift from coercive, shame–based, and confrontational models
    • Emphasizes respectful and therapeutic engagement of clients
    • Highlights the concept of choice
    • Assists clients with identifying their own motivations to change
  16. Motivational Interviewing: Guiding Principles
    • Express empathy
    • Develop discrepancy
    • Roll with resistance
    • Support self–efficacy
  17. Additional Interviewing Tips
    • Simple vocabulary
    • Open–ended questions
    • “Successive approximation”
    • Resist challenging minimizations or contradictions
    • Positive reinforcement
  18. Pre–Disposition Report
    • Often first opportunity to assess comprehensively
    • Informs decisionmaking for judges
    • Provides baseline data
    • Should follow youth throughout system
    • Foundation of case management
  19. Overarching Considerations
    • Accountability and rehabilitation
    • Victim impact, victim needs
    • Community safety interests
  20. PSR/PDR: Critical Elements
    • Offense information
    • Prior delinquency
    • Youth functioning
    • Family functioning
    • Aggravating andmitigating factors
    • Victim impact
    • Sexual, non–sexual risk levels
    • Appropriate placement options
    • Recommendations
  21. Child and Adolescent Strengths and Needs— Sexual Development (CANS–SD)
    • Structured needs assessment
    • Multiple domains assessed
      • Functioning
      • Risk behaviors
      • Mental health needs
      • Care intensity and organization
      • Caregiver capacity
      • Strengths
      • Characteristics of sexual behavior
  22. Recommendations
    • Specialized programs, services, interventions
    • Suggested placement, level of care
    • Special conditions of supervision, if applicable
    • Fines, restitution
    • Best course of action should be offered
  23. Juvenile Delinquency Guidelines: Improving Court Practice in Juvenile Delinquency Cases
  24. Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Probation Practice
  25. Psychosexual Evaluation
    • Not identical to general psychological evaluation
    • Requires specialized training and experience
      • Forensic psychology
      • Adolescent mental health and juvenile justice
      • Sex offender management
      • Sexually abusive youth
  26. Ideally Conducted Post–Adjudication
    • Ethical and legal questions may arise pre-adjudication
      • Presumption of guilt
      • Fifth amendment/self-incrimination
      • Ultimate issue/guilt or innocence
    • Best suited for informing disposition recommendations, case planning
  27. Informed Consent
    • Explain your role
    • Review processes, procedures
    • Outline risks, benefits, consequences
    • Explain confidentiality limits
    • Allow for questions
  28. Commonalities Across Evaluations
  29. Unique Elements
    • Sex offense-specific assessment tools
    • Juvenile sex offense-specific risk assessment
    • Potential use of physiological tools
    • Comprehensive sexual history
  30. Sexual History
  31. Examples of Psychosexual Assessment Measures
    • Adolescent Sexual Interest Cardsort
      • Becker & Kaplan, 1988
    • Adolescent Cognitions Scale
      • Hunter, Becker, Kaplan, & Goodwin, 1991
    • Multiphasic Sex Inventory–Juvenile Version
      • Nichols & Molinder, 1986, 2001
    • Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths–Sexual Development
      • Lyons, 2001
  32. Physiological Tools
    • Penile plethysmograph
    • Viewing time (Abel Screen)
    • Polygraph
  33. Plethysmography Cautions
    • Limited research with youth
    • Developmental factors may influence reliability/validity
    • Arousal patterns not firmly established with youth
    • Intrusive procedure, questionable stimuli
  34. Programs Using Plethysmograph with Juveniles
  35. Viewing Time Cautions
    • Little published research
    • Available evidence is mixed
      • Fairly promising
  36. Programs Using Viewing Time with Juveniles
  37. Polygraph Utilization Trends in Community–Based Programs
  38. Polygraph Cautions
    • Little research, especially with juveniles
    • Reliability and validity potentially influenced by developmental factors
  39. Practice Guidelines: Physiological Measures with Youth
    • Not for guilt or innocence determinations
    • Not as a sole basis for key decisions
    • Specially trained users
    • Safeguards against self–incrimination
    • Informed consent
    • Best reserved for older youth
  40. Summary and Recommendations: Psychosexual Evaluation
    • Attitude toward treatment, amenability
    • Level of accountability
    • Degree of psychosexual disturbance
    • Special needs
    • Environmental suitability
    • Strengths and assets
    • Risk level
    • Range of treatment needs
    • Suggested level of care/least restrictive placement options
  41. Risk Assessment
    • Increasingly influential
    • Effective and efficient allocation of resources
    • Consistency, structure, equity, and objectivity
  42. Common Uses
    • Detention hold or release decisions
    • Level of custody or placement at disposition
    • Community supervision level
    • Sex offender registration and community notification
  43. Risk Factors: General Delinquency or Youth Violence
    • Age at first referral or adjudication
    • Prior referrals or adjudications
    • Nature of current charge
    • Prior aggression
    • Association with delinquent peers
    • Social isolation
    • History of abscondence
    • Substance abuse
    • Family instability, poor parent–child relations
    • History of maltreatment
    • School problems
  44. Risk Assessment Tools: General Delinquency
    • Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory
      • (Hoge & Andrews, 1996)
    • Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth
      • (Bartel, Forth, & Barum, 2002)
    • Michigan, Washington, and Wisconsin Risk Instruments
  45. Risk Prediction Challenges for Juvenile Sex Offenders
    • Low base rates of recidivism
    • Limited number of well–designed studies on recidivism for youth
  46. Suggested Risk Factors for Juveniles: Sexual Recidivism
    • Family instability, poor parent–child relations
    • Association with delinquent peers
    • Social isolation
    • Antisocial orientation, psychopathy
    • Deviant arousal
    • Sexual preoccupation, compulsivity
    • Non–familiar victims
    • Pro–offending attitudes
    • Impulsivity
    • Treatment non–compliance, termination
  47. Risk Assessment Approaches
    • Unstructured clinical judgment
    • Empirically–guided
    • Actuarially–based
  48. Limitations of Actuarials
    • Moderate—not high— predictive accuracy
    • Cannot identify actual risk of recidivism for specific individuals
    • Cannot affirmatively determine who will or will not reoffend
  49. Promising Tools for Juveniles
    • Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol–II
      • (Prentky & Righthand, 2003)
    • Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism
      • (Worling & Curwen, 2001)
  50. J–SOAP–II Subscales
    • Sexual drive/preoccupation
    • Impulsive, antisocial behavior
    • Intervention
    • Community stability/adjustment
  51. ERASOR Domains
    • Sexual interests, attitudes, behaviors
    • Historical sexual assaults
    • Psychosocial functioning
    • Family environmental functioning
    • Treatment
  52. Programs Using J–SOAP–II or ERASOR
  53. Concluding Comments
    • Assessment is ongoing and multidisciplinary
    • Multiple sources of data
    • Importance of style and approach
    • No magic bullets
    • No absolutes
    • Key to informed decisionmaking

Assessment Topic Slide