1. Section 4: Treatment
  2. Key Topics for the Treatment Section
    • Part I: Program Availability and Settings
    • Part II: Rehabilitative Trends
    • Part III: Goals, Frameworks, and Modalities
    • Part IV: Common Treatment Targets
    • Part V: Challenges and Controversies
    • Part VI: Treatment Outcomes
  3. Availability of Juvenile Sex Offender Treatment Programs Nationwide
  4. Program Settings for Juveniles: Community vs. Residential
  5. Continuum of Treatment Settings
  6. Benefits of Community-Based Treatment
    • Intervene in natural environment
    • Support productive involvement
      • Family
      • Peers
      • School/employment
    • Generally cost-effective
  7. Benefits of Residential Treatment
    • Increased structure and security
    • Victim and community safety
    • Immersion in treatment
  8. “Getting Tough” on Juvenile Crime
    • Lowered minimum age for waiver
    • Eliminated many confidentiality restrictions
    • Harsher punishments and mandatory sentences
    • Reduced judicial discretion
  9. Impact of Adult Dispositions on Youthful Offenders
    • Recidivism increases
    • More serious types of recidivism
    • Reduced access to rehabilitative services
    • Increased victimization and suicide rates within institutions
    • Lowered self-expectancies about remaining crime free
  10. Examples of Evidence-Based Interventions
    • Wraparound Services
    • Functional Family Therapy
    • Multisystemic Therapy
  11. Common Treatment Goals
    • Accept responsibility for behaviors
    • Identify contributing factors
    • Explore, utilize effective coping strategies
    • Develop prosocial skills and competencies
    • Establish positive peer relationships
    • Promote healthy family functioning
  12. These Youth Aren’t “Specialists”
    • 55% had a prior non-sex offense
    • 61% were convicted of non-sex offenses as adults
    • Only 5% convicted of sex offenses as adults
      • Of sexual recidivists, 72% were also convicted for non-sex offenses as adults.
  13. Most Common Theoretical Frameworks Reported Nationwide
  14. Multiple Modes are Important
    • Group time constraints
    • Sensitive issues and dynamics
    • Responsivity factors
    • Deviancy training concerns
  15. Use of Various Modalities Nationwide
  16. Common Treatment Targets
    • Responsibility-taking
    • Cognitive distortions or thinking errors
    • Victim empathy
    • Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills
    • Relationship skills
    • Healthy masculinity
    • Arousal control
    • Trauma resolution
    • Values clarification
    • Family functioning
  17. Treatment Targets in Programs Nationwide
  18. Process-Related and Contextual Variables
    • Therapist characteristics
    • Treatment climate
    • “Approach” goals
  19. Juvenile Sex Offender Programs for Females
  20. Treatment Targets for Females vs. Males in Programs Nationwide
  21. Future Directions for Juvenile Female Sex Offender Treatment
    • Identify unique risk and protective factors
    • Clinical characteristics, modus operandi
    • Gender-responsive programs
    • Treatment outcome research
  22. Treatment Programs for Children with Sexual Behavior Problems
  23. Psychiatric Disorders and Juvenile Sex Offenders
    • Common presence necessitates screening
    • Can interfere with treatment engagement and response
    • Pharmacological interventions may be warranted
  24. Potential Pharmacological Interventions and Cautions
    • SSRIs may be beneficial for co-occurring disorders
      • Side effects may include reduced preoccupations and sex drive
      • FDA Warning
    • Antiandrogens not recommended as first-line intervention for youth
  25. Juvenile Programs Using the Polygraph Nationwide
  26. Recidivism Trends for Treated Youth Released from Facilities
  27. Treated vs. Non-Treated Youth in a Community-Based Program
  28. MST vs. Alternative Treatment
  29. Summary of Key Points
    • New and evolving field
    • Consider “what works”
    • Holistic, integrated, and comprehensive
    • Challenges and controversies exist
    • Treatment has promise

Treatment Topic Slide