1. Section 6: Reentry
  2. Goals
    • Examine three challenges related to juvenile sex offender reentry and aftercare
      • Over–reliance on the most secure placements
      • Insufficient reentry and aftercare planning
      • Fragmentation across the system
    • Clarify how these challenges can be addressed
  3. Over–Reliance on the Most Secure Placements
  4. National Statistics: Placement
    • More than 100,000 youthful offenders in placement released each year
    • Increase of more than 40% from 1990–1999
  5. National Statistics: Placement (Continued)
    • 1999–2003
      • 11% decrease
    • 2000–2002
      • 7% decrease
        • 36 states
  6. Placement of Juvenile Sex Offenders
    • While over time numbers have decreased, juvenile sex offenders in placement have increased
      • 1997–2003
        • 34% rise
      • 2003
        • Approximately 8% (8,000) were sex offenders
  7. Placement of Juvenile Sex Offenders (Continued)
    • Most (72%) of the nation’s specialized treatment programs are community–based
      • 28% are in residential or institutional facilities
    • But about ½ of juvenile sex offenders were treated in residential or institutional programs
  8. Tendency to Over–Rely on Residential and Institutional Placements
    • Not all youth will benefit
    • No strong evidence to suggest that placements result in substantial reductions in recidivism
    • Interventions in a youth’s natural environment are more likely to result in positive outcomes
    • Not all juvenile sex offenders in residential or institutional facilities need to be there
  9. Insufficient Reentry and Aftercare Planning
  10. Getting In Is Easy, Getting Out Is Difficult
    • Compared to most other types of youthful offenders, juvenile sex offenders spend more time in placement
    • One reason is a lack of or insufficient reentry and aftercare planning
    • Tendency to assume that “more” is better
  11. Consequences
    • Prolonged detachment from positive community supports and productive involvement in prosocial activities exacerbates reentry challenges
    • Potential negative outcomes when delinquent youth are placed together for the purpose of intervention
    • Maxing out with no aftercare programming or community supervision
    • Movement to “low” level of supervision or care, with no gradual reduction in aftercare services and support
    • Prevent early identification of needs and barriers

  12. Fragmentation Across the System
  13. Design of the System
    • Establishes a residential or institutional dimension and a community dimension that can be mutually exclusive
    • “In” or “out”
    • Consider
      • Treatment providers “in” and “out”
      • Institutional or residential caseworkers or managers “in” and juvenile parole officers “out”
  14. Potential Solutions
  15. Reasons for Over–Reliance
    • High stakes
    • Insufficient assessment data
    • Limited specialized management capacity
    • Lack of confidence in existing community resources
    • Negative community sentiment
  16. Strategies to Reduce Over–Reliance
    • Assessment–driven decisionmaking at the point of disposition or sentencing
    • Building community capacity
    • Raising awareness and increasing confidence through specialized training and education
      • Juvenile and family court judges and prosecutors
      • The community
  17. Insufficient Planning
    • Planning for reentry at the point of entry
      • Start at intake!
    • Early assessment is key
    • Anticipate needs that youth and the family have that may hinder reentry and aftercare efforts
  18. Key Questions to be Answered
    • What issues, concerns, and barriers need to be addressed at some point during the reentry and aftercare process?
    • When must these be addressed? In the facility before release? When the youth is in the community? Or in both?
    • Who will address them?
  19. Elements of a Comprehensive Reentry and Aftercare Plan
    • Specialized treatment needs
    • Mental health problems
    • Healthcare concerns
    • Family issues
  20. Family Reunification Challenges
    • Limited placement options
    • Requests from family members
    • Concerns raised by victim advocates and service providers
    • Expectations of child welfare and social service agencies, and juvenile and family courts
    • Large caseloads
    • Limited long–term influence of involved agencies and the courts
  21. Key Elements of Reunification
    • Victim safety
    • Early initiation of process
    • Gradual and deliberate
      • Out of home placement
      • Treatment interventions
      • Readiness assessments
      • Supervised contacts in clinical settings
      • Clarification
      • Supervised contacts in natural environments
      • Transition to family supervision
      • Return home
    • Flexible and responsive
    • Collaboration
  22. Promoting Early Involvement of Families
    • Approach parents and caregivers as partners whose input is valued
    • Identify common ground and common goals
    • Make family therapy an expectation rather than an easy “option” to decline
    • Plan to incorporate therapeutic activities or assignments into visitation time
    • Create “after hours” parenting skills classes, and education and support groups
    • Plan to offer transporation
  23. Elements of a Comprehensive Reentry and Aftercare Plan
    • Educational needs
    • Vocational needs
    • Life and independent living skills
    • Community supervision strategies
    • Community hostility concerns
  24. Importance of Continuity of Programming and Services
    • Staff “in” and “out” must work together to ensure continuity of care
    • Services provided should anticipate interventions that are to come or build upon previous programs
    • Avoiding delays is critical
      • Schedule appointments in the community prior to release
  25. Utilizing the Whole Continuum
    • Planning early to avoid “all or nothing”
    • Ideally, jurisdictions have a range of
      • Community–based options
        • Specialized supervision
        • Non–residential programs
          • Alternative living
          • Day treatment
          • Outpatient services
        • Residential and institutional programming
          • Group homes
          • Halfway houses
          • Transition or step–down
  26. Responding when Problems Arise
    • Increasing supervision intensity
    • Imposing a sanction that is treatment–based
    • Requiring a temporary return to a residential or institutional placement
  27. Critical Factors to Consider
    • Seriousness of behavior
    • Risk level
    • Degree to which community safety was jeopardized
    • Juvenile’s disclosure
    • Level of responsibility assumed by youth
    • Awareness and disclosure of behavior by parents, caregivers, other community support network members
    • Ability of parents/caregivers to provide structure and support
    • Presence of other assets or services to assist juvenile to maintain compliance
  28. Fragmentation Across the System
    • Importance of collaboration
      • Inside
      • Outside
      • “In” to “Out”
  29. Conclusion
    • To address over–reliance on the most secure placements
      • Specialized and comprehensive PSIs and PDRs, and psychosexual evaluations
      • Build community management capacity
      • Provide specialized training
      • Work proactively with the community
    • Think about “reentry at the point of entry” and initiate transition and aftercare planning at intake
      • Focus on youth, family, and other “environmental” considerations
    • “In” to “out” requires collaboration!
  30. Intensive Aftercare Program Model
    • Individualized case planning
    • Continuity of care
    • Collaboration
    • Formal transition structures
    • Small caseloads
    • Balance
      • Supervision and control mechanisms
      • Range of programming
    • Graduated rewards and sanctions

Reentry Topic Slide